Wednesday, 15 April 2015

Quitting The Smoking Habit Permanently - My Personal Realization Method To Help You Quit

A simple easy to follow dissertation that I hope may lead you to a complete cessation of your addiction to nicotine and cigarettes. This essay is designed to help you to make conscious decisions in your personal life that will enable you to stop smoking permanently. This will require you to show the strength to take 100% responsibility for your health, your career, your finances, your relationships, your emotions and your habits. All these things are affected by an addiction to cigarettes and cigars.

You will need to take a hard look at yourself, consciously deciding what the triggers are that compel you to smoke and then to discover what action is most likely to help you to quit permanently and for the positive personal development of your life and consequently that of your family, friends and associates.

You will learn practical ideas to make important changes in your life which when acted upon will help you to conquer your nicotine addiction and give you the confidence to face a new positive future free of nicotine and cigarettes.

Most importantly I will give you the inside information on how I quit a 25 year long habit, using simple, easy to follow thought processes which has guaranteed me a better, healthier and more personally rewarding life with an increased life expectancy and a significant increase in my standard of living. I have achieved this after several failed attempts, some of them prolonged but now my life simply cannot support cigarettes and nicotine. I rationalized why I smoked in the first place, understood its utter folly and by looking deeper at the reasons behind addiction chose a nicotine free life. A personal REALIZATION had taken place.


At this early stage in the program accept that you must identify in yourself just how you started your nicotine habit and determine what type of smoker you are.

1. THE SOCIAL SMOKER - you smoke because others around you do and because it helps you to relax in social situations and to behave with more confidence.

2. THE STRESS COPING SMOKER - you smoke to help you cope with the stresses of life - whether they occur in the workplace, at home or in personal relationships.

3. THE CHIC SMOKER - you smoke because you believe it gives you a perceived cool, savoir faire feeling, attitude or look.

4. THE SENSUAL SMOKER - you smoke because you enjoy the whole ritual of smoking and the physical sensations experienced.

Of course if you are like I once was, you may identify with more than one of these stereotypes - if you do, just recognize it and accept it.

Do not be frightened or put off the idea of quitting simply because you have seen in yourself the roots of your own nicotine addiction. Face up to it, see it for what it is but most importantly determine once you have accepted your smoking origins that these smoking characteristics are neither desirable nor positive. Keep this notion at the back of your mind throughout your reading of this tutorial. However, this understanding will not in itself stop you from smoking but I promise that at a later stage it will empower you to keep your focus and maintain your willpower, as your new nicotine free life re-emerges.

This will happen. It will happen because as your addiction to nicotine starts to wane, you will be better placed to deny your own reasons for smoking, seeing them as excuses. You will become far less tolerant of them and be able to rationalize and see them for what they are - NONSENSE.

Lets revisit these smoking stereotypes:

1. THE SOCIAL SMOKER - perhaps there was, I admit, a time when smoking in public, at social or family gatherings, in restaurants and especially in pubs, was acceptable. How times have changed. The social smoker is now considered by the general public as a nuisance. Passive smoking, whatever the true health fact and figures, is a big deal for non-smokers. Non-smokers recognize too that the social smoker in today's society is generally using nicotine as a prop - a type of social crutch to bolster self-confidence and self-esteem in the company of others. The misguided notion that a social smoker may have that they interact more easily with others with the aid of a cigarette than without is possibly true for those addicted to nicotine. But just how more empowered and self-confident would these same groups of people be once they are nicotine fee and have regained control and respect for their real selves. No more nervous lighting of cigarettes; no more panicky moments as cigarette packs run out; no more late night trips to petrol stations or all night supermarkets.

2. THE STRESS COPING SMOKER - In my experience smoking during a personal crisis or to help cope with work related or similar problems simply compounded the very problem or crisis I sought to alleviate. Any fleeting sensations of calm or relief gained from lighting up was replaced with a greater period of time avoiding a more positive response that would actually have lead to a resolution of problems or at least to a more realistic acceptance of them.

Nicotine does not help anyone to deal with stress. Between cigarettes I would fret more and

simply reach for the next fix which had the effect of avoiding the issues and aggravating any feelings of self-pity or lack of self-worth.

If you see the stress smoker stereotype in yourself admit it. Accept it. Again this realization will not in itself lead directly to you quitting but later on will enable you to sustain a commitment to long-term smoking cessation.

3. THE 'CHIC' SMOKER - If you are the type of smoker who believes that holding a cigarette in a perceived 'cool' or chic manner gives you a certain 'savoir faire' or physical attraction advantage over non smokers then think again. The 50's film star look of brooding idol complete with cigarette is a dated and pitiful look. No longer cool - and an irresponsible attitude. If you smoke for these reasons accept it. Later in this program your recognition of your 'type' will empower you to sustain a commitment to long term smoking cessation.

4. THE SENSUAL SMOKER - I recognized in myself, before I gave up, that this was my major type. I actually enjoyed the whole ritual of smoking. I liked the paraphernalia of lighters, papers, packets, matches, etc and I loved too the sensations gained from drawing on the cigarette. The feeling of calm and inner confidence that ensues is quite difficult to understand for someone who is a non-smoker.

However, it became apparent to me too that these feelings were only fleeting and were replaced quite often with an uncontrollable sense of loss and need for subsequent fixes of nicotine to sustain a positive mood. The sensuality of smoking, I realized, was just an illusion. As an ex-smoker I can now see that life without nicotine can be truly sensual for all the right reasons and not dependent upon false stimulants. This understanding has been sustained by freedom from nicotine addiction throughout my weaker moments and is a constant reminder to me to remain this way. Again, if you are predominantly this type of smoker, as I certainly was, accept it. Hold this profound knowledge that you have just gained and recall it later to help you sustain your commitment to a nicotine free life.

If you see the stress smoker stereotype in yourself own up to it. Accept it.

Again this realization will not in itself lead directly to you quitting but later on will enable you to sustain a commitment to long term cessation of smoking.


I will keep this section short as you are almost certainly well aware of the health risks a smoker runs. However, these risks are very real and have to be faced up to so I have simply listed below some of the medically acknowledged smoking related illnesses which are:

Bladder Cancer, Breast Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Childhood Respiratory Ailments, Diabetes, Emphysema, Gastrointestinal Cancer, Heart Disease, Infertility, Kidney Cancer, Lung Cancer, Mouth Cancer, Oesophageal Cancer, Premature Aging, Stroke, Throat Cancer.

The fact is that in order to quit smoking and stay quit requires an individual 'realization' that by stopping smoking you are actually doing something positive and beneficial that going back to smoking is simply not an option. Allen Carr in his excellent books describing the Easyway to quit echoes my own views. There is no need to use 'willpower'. Your mindset will be that in stopping smoking you are actually freeing yourself of an unnecessary evil. An easily surmountable habit that creates falsely within us the ILLUSION that our lives are worse without them and that we suffer actual pain when denied nicotine. This is simply not true.


Once you have analyzed your own smoking stereotype you will logically come to the conclusion that your reasons for continuing to smoke are based on folly, and therein lies the secret to smoking cessation. A realization that you will actually be undertaking a better life when you quit. The so called withdrawal symptoms are of little consequence compared to the immediate improvements to your health and state of mind which result from freeing yourself of the self perpetuating pain and suffering that nicotine brings upon the smoker. Accept this new understanding and I promise that from the day you stop restarting is simply NOT an option. You have just done something incredible. The withdrawal symptoms you experience this time, though mildly irritating, will be seen for what they are - EXCUSES. Your new realization will clearly uphold your clarified mindset - 'I have been set free from nicotine addiction and my life will improve naturally and beneficially as a consequence'. Now plan your quit time - the sooner the better! Consider too a detoxification of your body and perhaps a herbal quit smoking remedy for additional support.


Do not consider nicotine replacement therapies such as patches, gums, etc as the most likely products to assist your attempt to quit. However, it is just possible that they can help in the short-term and it is here that I do disagree with Allan Carr's take on them (though I have to say that this apart I do concur with almost all the philosophies and principles of his 'Easyway' system). Yes, nicotine replacement therapy on its own will rarely lead to a complete and long lasting cessation of cigarettes. Nicotine is still being absorbed and anyone using these products is likely to balk at the realization method I am advocating.

But, by removing some of the habits associated with smoking, they might just discover a short-term healthier option, on the path to realization. Indeed as already mentioned it is unlikely that any nicotine replacement therapy will work long term for most people. However, for those in the process of absorbing the truths of nicotine addiction they do offer a more healthy temporary option. I might add, however, that I have never believed in the slow weaning process advocated by nicotine replacement therapy products any more than I believe in the slow weaning cigarette reduction process as a route to successful smoking cessation. A more sensible option in the weeks leading up to your quit day is a detox. A detox will enable you to cope better as your body's chemistry will be better balanced. Try to cut out or significantly reduce your intake of alcohol and caffeine and increase your intake of water to 2-3 litres per day. Processed foods should be reduced or cut out altogether as should sugars, animal fats and salt.

Numerous products are available that assist the detox process including some good herbal products. These assist in promoting the bio-availability of nutrients, hormones and bio-chemicals that are usually depleted by the stress of nicotine and drug withdrawal. In my opinion these types of products offer a far more supportive approach to the realization method described here than the nicotine replacement method which often seems to work at first but which ultimately in most (though not all) cases results in failure and a return to cigarettes.

Both herbal and detox products help your body to cope in natural and supportive way in the days leading up to your quit day and during the early stages after quitting. They are not a substitute for the reasoned realization that I believe must occur but are to be seen as complementary and helpful assistants.

Understand this, when you stop smoking you are immediately better off in terms of physical health, mental state, confidence, all will benefit. The weaning process dulls this effect and ultimately undermines it through its own contradictions. Use them if you must whilst convincing yourself of the methods I advocate.


If you have now come to the conclusion or realization that smoking is no longer to be a part of your life congratulate yourself and pick your quit day and time. Get rid of any cigarettes, ashtrays, lighters etc. Not because they might tempt you back but because they are no longer necessary. You will be excited at the prospect of your new nicotine free life. On this day think of your new nicotine free life. On this day think less of cigarettes and more about other ways in which you can improve your health. Increase your exercise regime - walking, swimming, going to the gym, these are all ways that can add to your new sense of wellness and self respect. Continue or start a detox and revel in the fact that you have just embarked upon something unique and revolutionary - a life free of nicotine.

Remind yourself now of the primary immediate benefits:

*Immediate improvements in your health?

*Immediate improvements to your bank balance

*A greater understanding and respect for yourself

*Increased confidence in your abilities to be proactive

*The knowledge that you will never smoke again

*The delight expressed at your success by friends and family


If you are looking for a miracle cure for your addiction, there isn't one and you will probably leave this article disappointed. But if you can absorb some of the cognitive thinking that I hope will convince you of the fallacy of the illusion that there are benefits to smoking then I believe you will be sufficiently empowered to cease smoking. I hope that within moments of your assimilation of my arguments you will come to the conclusion that there is absolutely nothing to fear from quitting smoking. You will from the point at which you stub out that 'last' cigarette have regained control and will be embarking upon a new life immediately, free from nicotine addiction and full of excitement and new possibilities.

Remember that no willpower is required with this method. You are not trying to overcome something painful. You are not going to put yourself in a compromising position. You are not going to expose yourself to your worst fears. In fact you are doing the opposite. You are taking a positive step towards regaining control of your life.

After your final cigarette you will immediately be back in control. It was, remember, the smoking itself that encouraged your fears and demons in the first place. Remove the nicotine - immediately remove the problem. With this mindset no physical or mental symptoms will prevail as a consequence of ceasing the habit, a habit which claims over 440,000 lives every year in the USA.

Once you have absorbed these arguments I am convinced that a realization will take place for you too.

Nicotine addiction does not exist anymore for you and cigarettes and nicotine replacement therapies will be of absolutely no interest or possible use to you. Your thinking will be different. Your outlook will be liberated, positive and confident. Notions of defeatism, self-pity, personal loss or perceived pain will wane and eventually disappear as you contemplate and look forward to a healthy and rewarding life in which you have total control. Your goal of a life free of nicotine and cigarettes and a life free too of the problems they promote and endlessly compound has been realized. For you smoking is now a thing of the past.

The Everything-ness of Education

The today of profound evolution, the broadness of materialism, the absence of spirituality and finally, the nowhere of the world, are the instigations of this essay. So what are the elements that constitute humanness? How do we start? And how do we know our dooms?

Education! From its genuine purpose, is the first and last constitution of humanness, is where our human element start and finally, the one that we will leave this human world with.

From the matter of fact, there is nothing that can change the courses of human life; positively and negatively, materially and spiritually, than the education does. Imagine how have the education benefited those who have it and know how to use it and the danger of those who are educationally absentminded.

The world "education" does not single-mindedly refer to one granted from academic institution, but refer to the education that does fill the purpose of humanness and that finally make human intentionally adequate. The everything-ness of education, in this sense, will only apply to those who use education for spiritual purpose and who really know the genuine point of education.

The value of education does not apply to those who have and will have Bachelor's, Master's or Doctorate degree, but it only apply to those who understand or are looking forward to the innate meaning and the sole purpose of education. Education is everything, because the purpose contained in education is also the purpose of human being.

The purpose of this article is not to explain innate genuineness of education, but it would serve as the thinking-syndication for those searching for education for spiritual or material prosperity.

An Analytical Approach to Essay Writing

Is there really a standard approach on writing essays? If so, how are you going to structure your writing? Do you need to follow some basic rules or guidance to write effectively? Some people sit down and write an essay like they're whipping this afternoon's snack. While there's nothing wrong with that, approaching the task analytically will probably do most students better.

When instructors give essay assignments, they're hoping to witness how you engage your cognitive responses. Most students attempt to demonstrate their abilities at recall, comprehension and application. Problem is, teachers usually look for more than that. They want you to introduce elements of analysis, synthesis and evaluation into your essays too. In my opinion, that is best achieved with a conscious, analytical approach.

An analytical approach to essay writing breaks down the job into various steps:
Analyze the different concepts that pertain to the subject.
Synthesize various ideas and evidences, relating one to the other in a cohesive whole.
Construct consistent and well-supported arguments using those synthesized concepts.
Write about the issue, discussing it in a manner that is balanced and fair.
Evaluate ideas and arguments opposing your own, ultimately integrating them as part of your discussion.
Making judgments and expressing a clear, well-reasoned opinion.
Going this route, you keep yourself from focusing too much on the recall, comprehension and application parts of the essay, going deeper into the issuesby accessing more complex thought processes. How about the writing part? Just do your best and arm yourself with your favorite software for writing to help you. You'll be fine.

Let Other People Critique Your College Admission Essay

Every year thousands of students face the challenge of submitting their applications to their dream schools and submitting their masterly crafted College Admission Essay. Before you can ever step on the pavements of the university, an aspiring student's acceptance letter may be largely dependent on the student's college admission essay. Admission essays and College Application Essays are very vital for one's entry to a good reputable university. The admission essay can be the determining factor, of whether or not one is to be admitted to a certain college or university. Many students never make it to their desired schools not because of their grades or lack of extracurricular activities. They fail because of the admission essay they submitted. An admission essay does not really have to be Nobel Prize for Literature-like essay. It just has to be creative and one of a kind.

Year after year, admissions officers read thousands of College Admission Essays from all over the country (and the world). The probability that they will remember everything a student has written is one to a thousand. The only way that a student could make a mark and imprint his words to the admissions officers' minds is to be unique. This means to say that the essay should be creatively woven to bring out the real persona behind the student. Admissions officers don't want to read essays that are written already in one's resume like achievements and personal particulars. They are interested in what's behind those achievements and grades. They are after the essence and soul of the particular student. Writing about one's experiences is a good material to start one's essay with. This will help bring out the spunk and creative genius in a person while baring his soul for the admissions officers to read.

There are ways in which the student can check if the College Admission Essay he has written can catch another person's attention and to see if the essay is grammatically correct. For one, he could let his family, friends and teachers to read the essay and have them critique it. In this way, the strong and weak points of the essay will be brought up and can be corrected. If more than three persons consulted say that the essay lacks color and life, or if the essay is not coherent and has no unity, then something must be very wrong with it. Don't be offended by the criticisms received for they are only constructive ones and it will also help improve the essay. There's a tendency that a person can't see errors in one's own writings. Therefore, it is important to let others read and critique one's work. In fact, their comments and criticisms may be the very same comments and things that the admission officers will take note of as well.

Preparation for college requires a lot of patience and great deal of imagination. College Admission Essays as well as College Application Essays are the necessary essentials that could make or break a student's future. Remember that one's future is at stake with these essays. Needless to say, when one is writing every word in the paper, he should think about the future. Accordingly, there are three parts of college admission essays: the introduction, body, and conclusion. It's always good to begin one's essay with a bang to hook the readers to continue perusing the essay until the very last period. Make use of humor and wit, but never forget to be honest and true to one's writing.

Falling Standard Of Education In Nigeria: Who Is To Be Blame?


The concept " falling standard of Education" is a relative term because there is no well defined instruments to measure it with utmost reliability and validity. That is why scholars' views on the concept varies. These scholars view it at different perspectives, depending on the angle each of them is looking at it.

Babalola, A (2006) sees the concept from admission of Nigerian University products in developed countries universities. That the first six Nigerian Universities (University of Ibadan, Ile Ife, Lagos, Benin, Nsukka and Zaria) had their products competing favourably with any other University in the world as their products were sought for by University of Harvard, Cambridge, Oxford and London for admission into their post-graduate courses. That these students record breaking performances and when they graduate are employed by the best multi-national companies and corporate bodies globally unlike today where no Nigerian University is among the top 6,000 Universities of the world (Adeniyi, Bello (2008) in Why no worry about rankings). He sees standard from how universities contribute to knowledge and solving problems besetting mankind.

According to Gateway to the Nation (2010), University of Ibadan is ranked 6,340th University in the world. In Africa, University of Ibadan is ranked 57th, OAU 69th and South African Universities are leading the way in Africa.
He also use written and spoken English as a yardstick for measuring standard of education which University of London conducted a research in West Africa and the result showed that teachers trained by colonial masters were better of than those trained by indigenous teachers.

He also used staffing, funding, foundation, origin and students as standard of education.

Standard of education to Dike, V. (2003) is how education contribute to the public health (or sociopolitical and economic development of a Nation).

Standard of education to either passing or failing of external examinations like WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, JAMB,(NOW UTME) among others.

Teachers without Boarders (2006) looks at educational standard from how the products of schools can be measured in terms of outcome. That is how school leavers contribute to the society in terms of cognitive affective and psychomotor. I will be using students to refer to both students and pupils, I will use head teacher to refer to both principal and headmaster.

Which ever way you may view standard of education, for you to conclude whether the standard is falling or not, you must take into consideration all the aforementioned variables including achieving educational goals.

Equally, for justice to be done while measuring these standards one has to look at reliability where all the schools to be measured must have the same infrastructure, teaching materials, quality of teachers, level and degree of learners, condition within which learning takes place, some methods of assessment and some types of contribution to the society among others.


Haven discussed what makes up standard in education, may I crave your indulgence to some of the established facts that constitute falling standard of education in Nigeria.

(1) Discipline: This is one of the outstanding attributes of education when it is rightly observed.

a. Repeating: school no longer observe repeating as every student is promoted to the next class whether they understand or not gives room for falling standard.
b. Attendance: The 75% of attendance universally accepted as the bases for someone to sit for examination is no longer observed.
c. Late coming: Student that come late are no longer punished, which leads to their losing morning classes.
d. Misbehaviour: Students are no longer punished for misbehavior because of their parental influences (lost of jobs or unnecessary transfer).
e. Cultism: This could refer to rituals, usually under oath binding the members to a common course. They operate covertly in fulfillment of their objectives to the detriment of other people. Thus, planning secondary needs above primary needs.

These cults exist because of over population of students in schools, wrong admissions not based on merits, hence fear of examination failures and selfish worldly gains.

(2) Quest for paper qualification: Nigerians respect paper qualification above performance in the fields. Hence, cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains are supposed to be measured on the field.

(3) Politicizing education: Merit is no longer regarded as it is now " who you know" and not "what you can deliver" Technocrats (educationists are not appointed Commissioner of education and education board).

(4) Policy problem: Sometimes the type of policies government make on education adversely affects output. For instance, in College of Education, we have National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), competing with JAMB for admission as the two guidelines vary.

Equally, WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, JAMB ( now UTME) compete with qualifying pre-requisites and regulation of entries into tertiary institutions.

(5) Teachers not being part of the examination bodies. One wonders whether the continuous Assessment submitted by these teachers are used or not.

(6) Accessibility of Schools: The Nigerian population boom has outnumbered the existing schools as the existing schools have to over admit.

This point can be practically seen in the following areas:

(i) Teacher / Student ratio of 1:25 is no longer there as in my class, it is 1:3900.
(ii) Students / books / Journals ratio of 1:10 is no longer feasible.
(iii) Politics of admission: Schools can no longer set targets for admission to conform with their facilities as powerful notes from above will force the school authorities to either over admit or find themselves in the labour market again. Yet it is those that are giving these notes are suppose to build more schools or provide needed infrastructure etc. to accommodate those collecting these notes.

(7) Over-dependent on cognitive domain: Schools do not give regards to affective domain that will mould characters of our young ones. Little attention is given to psychomotor while no attention is given to affective domain.

(8) Shortage of qualified teachers: Some schools in the rural areas only have the headmaster as government employee while the rest that may be secondary school drop outs are PTA staff. What miracle can these staff perform? Dike, V. (2006) observed that only 23% out of the then 400,000 primary schools in Nigeria have grade II even when NCE is now the minimum qualification for teachers at primary and Junior Secondary schools.

(9) Teachers welfare: It is no longer news that

(a) Politicians do not have negotiation council to negotiate their salary increase.
(b) There is no disparity among political office holders from the federal, state and local governments.
(c) Their salaries are increased at astronomical manner.
(d) Their salaries are increased any time without recourse to whether the nation's economy can bear it or not.
(e) But for teachers, they must negotiate the 10 to 20% of an attempt to increase their salary with consideration of the economy of the nation. How can these teachers contribute and perform miracle when their family members are in the hospitals and the O.S. syndrome is written on their cards by pharmacists while they do not have money to treat.

(10) Constant Strikes: This is an impediment to smooth covering of syllabus. Oefule (2009) explained that one Nigerian guest asked a question on strike at Oxford University community but the vice chancellor could not even remember about strike, only the registrar remembered it for 17 years back. This is what governance means to the people.

(11) Long rule of the military; Education was not properly funded by the military regimes as according to Babalola, A(2006) Obasanjos administration inherited many left over problems of the military such as non- payment of pensions and gratuities of retired University staff, poor remuneration of university staff, dilapidating buildings of schools, libraries with outdated books, obsolete laboratory equipments, bad campus roads, inadequate water and power supply among others.

(12) In the secondary and primary schools levels, schools do not even have buildings talk less` of furniture's, equipments and reading materials. This is the level where the foundation of education should be laid. Any faulty foundation will lead to faulty structures. What do you expect from the tertiary level?

(13) Lack of training of teachers: Teachers are not trained to update their knowledge with latest discoveries based on research, then how can they give what they don't have?

(14) Poor state of Educational teaching facilities: Dike V. (2006) reported that research result shows that over 2015 primary schools in Nigeria do not have building but study under trees, talk less of teaching materials.

(15) Corruption: leaders of the schools and some Government officials either connive to buy equipments with loan money that cannot be of any use to the school or take such loans and do not even do anything with it.

(16) Poor budgetary allocation to education: A research work of 2001 shows that Nigeria only, allocate less than 20% to education it further reveals that Nigeria spends 0.76% to education as against Uganda 2.6%, Tanzania3.4%, Mozambique 4.1%, Angola 4.9%, Coted Ivore 5% Kenya 6.5% and South Africa 7.9% among others.


We have seen the causes of falling standards and from these causes we can deduce that the following are to be blamed:

1. Government suppose to carry the lion share of the blame because all the other variables are dependent variables to it.

2. Teachers also have their shares of the blame with regards to their diligent duties.

3. Parents: feeding has to be provided by parents. This is because parents do not leave schools to operate without interference.

4. Students: students who do not abide by school rules and regulations nor pay attention to their studies also contribute to falling standards. Students also seek for paper qualification and disregards to performance they also participate in cult activities that derail the progress of the academy.

5. The society is not left out as it is the way it sees and respects the products of these schools that recycles back again.


Based on the problems or causes identified above, the following solutions are proffered: Schools should respect and restore back discipline to bring back the lost glory of our educational standards.

Performance should be regarded and respected more than just paper qualification. Equally, education should not be politicized for whatever reason.

Policy makers should be mindful of policies that affect education .eg JAMB(UTME) regulation in admissions.

Teachers should be involved in examination activities and examination bodies should always publish examination reports and distribute it to various schools for them to hold school workshop for training of subject teachers on their areas of weaknesses observed in the students' scripts with regards to following the marking scheme.

More schools should be built to increase accessibility by all. Cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain should be used for assessment of students.

Teachers' welfare should be given priority by government to avoid unnecessary strikes in our educational sector while more qualified teachers should be employed to curb the present shortage of teachers in our schools.

Our civilian government should prove to the people that they are better than military government.

Teachers should be trained so that they can meet up with any new challenges Educational facilities should be upgraded to modern standards while teaching facilities should be adequately provided.

Corruption should be eliminated to the barest minimum by all stakeholders while government should increase its budgetary allocations to education to improve the standard of education in Nigeria.

How to Start Writing an Essay - The Five Paragraph Essay Model

Starting to write an essay can be a challenge. This five paragraph model is one way for us to get started. The sample essay is about computers. The first paragraph introduces the topic.

Paragraph 1: Introduces the topic


Computer technology has significantly changed how we live and how we work. At least, that's what my parents tell me. I'm too young to know what life was like for them without computers. I know only how computers are part of my life. Now that you've introduced the topic, your next step is to discuss your first idea.

Paragraph 2: One idea


When my parents were my age, computers were rare. My mother had to write letters or telephone when she wanted to talk to her cousin in Los Angeles. I can only imagine sending letters and waiting for weeks to receive a reply. Computers make our lives easier. If I could not use computers, I could not communicate with others as easily. You've introduced one idea. The next paragraph introduces a second idea.

Paragraph 3: Another idea


However there are disadvantages that computer use can cause. We can spend too much time online and neglect other important tasks such as studying. I used to spend so many hours using my computer and communicating with others that I sometimes missed exams. I often used the computer to chat, which was so interesting that I did not leave myself enough time to study. In a way, computers taught me to discipline myself and manage my time. The next paragraph introduces another idea. Notice that each idea has examples and information.

Paragraph 4: A third idea


Computers have introduced me to the world outside Japan. I have a penpal in San Francisco and another in Thailand. With both pals, I use English. These email exchanges have helped me to improve my English writing. Plus I enjoy learning about cable cars in San Francisco and the variety of bananas in Thailand. Now you're going to finish your essay. The last paragraph is simply a summary of some of what you've already said.

Paragraph 5: Conclusion


Computers have enriched my life. I know people in San Francisco and in Bangkok, people I would not have known without my computer. I have learned to discipline my time use and I have enjoyed myself. I cannot imagine my life without a computer.

One way of looking at writing is to think of your writing as a person. You're taking this person to a party. You arrive at the party and introduce your friend (Paragraph 1). Your friend gets into conversations (Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4). At the end of the evening, you and your friend go home and your friend summarizes the party (Paragraph 5). If looking at the paragraphs in that way helps you, terrific. If it does not, perhaps you could create an image for yourself that might work.

Here's the complete essay.

The Essay

Computer technology has significantly changed how we live and how we work. At least, that's what my parents tell me. I'm too young to know what life was like for them without computers. I know only how computers are part of my life.

When my parents were my age, computers were rare. My mother had to write letters or telephone when she wanted to talk to her cousin in Los Angeles. I can only imagine sending letters and waiting for weeks to receive a reply. Computers make our lives easier. If I could not use computers, I could not communicate with others as easily.

However there are disadvantages that computer use can cause. We can spend too much time online and neglect other important tasks such as studying. I used to spend so many hours using my computer and communicating with others that I sometimes missed exams. I often used the computer to chat, which was so interesting that I did not leave myself enough time to study. In a way, computers taught me to discipline myself and manage my time.

Computers have introduced me to the world outside Japan. I have a penpal in San Francisco and another in Thailand. With both pals, I use English. These email exchanges have helped me to improve my English writing. Plus I enjoy learning about cable cars in San Francisco and the variety of bananas in Thailand.